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Discrimination in Malaysia: Bumiputera, Ketuanan Melayu, Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia, Social Contract, Anti-Malay Racism Books LLC

Discrimination in Malaysia: Bumiputera, Ketuanan Melayu, Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia, Social Contract, Anti-Malay Racism

Books LLC

Published July 27th 2011
ISBN : 9781155526539
Paperback
50 pages
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 About the Book 

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 43. Chapters: Bumiputera, Ketuanan Melayu, Freedom of religion in Malaysia, Article 153 of the Constitution ofMorePlease note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 43. Chapters: Bumiputera, Ketuanan Melayu, Freedom of religion in Malaysia, Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia, HINDRAF, Social contract, Cow head protests, Pendatang asing, Anti-Malay racism. Excerpt: Ketuanan Melayu (Malay for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance) is the claim that the Malay people are the tuan (masters) of Malaysia. The Malaysian Chinese and Indian-Malaysians who form a significant minority in Malaysia, are considered beholden to the Malays for granting them citizenship in return for special privileges as set out in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. This quid pro quo arrangement is usually referred to as the Malaysian social contract. The concept of ketuanan Melayu is usually referenced by politicians, particularly those from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the most influential political party in Malaysia. Although the idea itself predates Malaysian independence, the phrase ketuanan Melayu did not come into vogue until the early 2000s decade. Historically, the most vocal political opposition towards the concept has come from non-Malay-based parties, such as the Malaysian Peoples Movement Party (Gerakan) and Democratic Action Party (DAP)- in the 2000s decade, the multiracial Parti Keadilan Rakyat also positioned itself against ketuanan Melayu, advocating instead ketuanan rakyat (supremacy of the people). The idea of Malay supremacy gained attention in the 1940s, when the Malays organized themselves to protest the Malayan Unions establishment, and later fought for independence. During the 1960s, there was a substantial effort challenging ketuanan Melayu led by the Peoples Action Party (PAP) of Singapore - which was a state in Malaysia from 1963 to 1965 - and the DAP after Singapores secession. However, the portions of the Constitution related to ketuanan Melayu were entren...